The Evolutionary Trajectory of Western Civilization 

What exactly is civilization? According to the anthropological academic definition, civilization’s genesis is characterized by that epoch which occurred about 5,000 years ago and from which history was first documented in writing – a time when economic forces compelled hunter-gatherers to adopt agriculture, and human tribes gathered in city-state communities with central planning and division of labor. From that humble beginning, what is now known as ancient Sumer sprung forth from the Fertile Crescent known as Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq, and those ancient people formed the first system of government, laws and uniform customs which still influence us to this day.

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